Online Glossary Letter I


Glossary-Items: Letter I

Imposter phenomenon

The imposter phenomenon (also known as imposter syndrome) refers to high-achieving people who, in spite of objective evidence of their success, suffer permanently from self-doubt as well as from the fear of being unmasked as “fakers”.


Individualized support

The role of individualized support, in the organization of a learning environment, is to take into account a child’s individual inclinations, learning ability, and needs regarding the learning content, the pace of learning, and the methodological preparation. Children and adolescents with high cognitive abilities can benefit from this as well.


Individual assessment of achievement

Individual assessments of achievement serve to evaluate students’ individual achievements. Students often realize their achievements in a learning setting in which each student is able to acquire learning content at their own pace and in their own particular way. This learning setting meets the needs of children and adolescents with high cognitive abilities in particular because evaluating achievements individually means that results can be presented that go beyond what is required. Evidence of achievement can be provided in the form of a portfolio, project work, a presentation, or something similar.



The basic idea behind inclusion is that people do not have to adapt to an existing system, but rather that the relevant system has to be adapted to the people in this system. This means, in the case of inclusive support for gifted people, that the educational system has to be flexible to such a degree that all children and adolescents are supported in their development regardless of their specific educational levels, interests, and needs and regardless of gender, culture, social background, or socioeconomic status.


Inner differentiation

Inner differentiation means providing learners within one group or class with individually adapted support. It enables different learning levels and abilities to be catered to in lessons.



Intelligence refers to the cognitive capability of a person. As a result, intelligence has a central role to play in defining and assessing giftedness and is an important part of many models of giftedness.


Intelligence quotient (IQ)

The intelligence quotient (IQ) reflects the intellectual capability of a person compared with other people who speak the same native language and who are in the same age group (reference group).


Intelligence test

An intelligence test (also known as an IQ test) records intellectual capability in accordance with the theory of intelligence which the IQ test is based on. Various areas of intelligence are taken into account and focused on in different tests depending on the theoretical foundation of the IQ test and the tasks selected. When conducting an intelligence test, it is therefore important to know which component abilities (e.g., figural abilities, deductive reasoning) are assessed by the test in question and the extent to which the test is dependent on levels of education and language.